Beta-Carotene (C1), acyl derivatives of capsanthin (C2), and acyl derivatives of capsorubin (C3) were isolated from red paprika (Сapsicum annuum) oleoresin. Incorporation of carotenoids C1, C2, and C3 into human plasma LDLs changed the LDL flotation coefficient distribution for LDL fraction 1.019<d<1.050 g/ml. The comparative studies of Cu 2+-catalyzed oxidation for LDL, LDL-C1, LDL-C2, and LDL-C3 revealed that carotenoids C1, C2, and C3 efficiently suppressed the oxidation of LDL, inhibited the formation of conjugated dienes from polyunsaturated fatty acid residues, lowered the content of small dense LDL subfraction, and inhibited the transformation of cholesterol to auto oxidized products (in particular to 5,6-epoxycholesterol, 7-ketocholesterol and 7b-hydroxycholesterol). This suggests that the main carotenoids may effectively inhibit LDL oxidation in vitro with probable lowering the "atherogenic" LDL subfraction production in vivo.
Medvedeva N.V. et al. Inhibition of oxidation of human low-density lipoproteins by carotinoids from Paprica сapsicum аnnuum // Biomeditsinskaya khimiya. - 2003. - V. 49. -N 2. - P. 191-200.
Medvedeva N.V. et al., "Inhibition of oxidation of human low-density lipoproteins by carotinoids from Paprica сapsicum аnnuum." Biomeditsinskaya khimiya 49.2 (2003): 191-200.
Medvedeva, N. V., Andreenkov, V. A., Morozkin, A. D., Sergeeva, E. A., Prokofev, Yu. I., Misharin, A. Yu. (2003). Inhibition of oxidation of human low-density lipoproteins by carotinoids from Paprica сapsicum аnnuum. Biomeditsinskaya khimiya, 49(2), 191-200.