Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) is one of the most important enzymes of the purine metabolism, wich promotes the recycling of purine bases. Nowadays is the actual to search for effective inhibitors of this enzyme which is necessary for creation T-cell immunodeficient status of the organism in the organs and tissues transplantation, and chemotherapy of a number pathologies as well. For their successful practical application necessary to conduct in-depth and comprehensive study of the enzyme, namely a structure, functions, and an affinity of the reaction mechanism. In the review the contemporary achievements in the study of PNP from various biological objects are presented. New data describing the structure of PNP are summarised and analysed. The physiological role of the enzyme is discussed. The enzyme basic reaction mechanisms and actions are considered. The studies on enzyme physicochemical, kinetic, and catalytic research are presented.