Magnesium homeostasis: mechanisms and inherited disorders

Zinov'eva V.N.1 , Iezhitsa I.N.1, Spasov A.A.1

1. Research Institute of Pharmacology, Volgograd State Medical University
Section: Review
PubMed Id: 18323153
Year: 2007  Volume: 53  Issue: 6  Pages: 683-704
Magnesium is one of the major cations of biological systems. It plays an essential role in many cell processes. The importance of magnesium underlines its maintenance under the steady conditions according to the metabolic state of the cell. In present review mechanisms of magnesium homeostasis, that have been intensively investigated during last decades using both pathophysiological and molecular genetic approaches, are considered. Disorders of magnesium homeostasis resulted in development of magnesium-deficient conditions, which are commonly found in various diseases (diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, chronic fatigue, alcoholism, psychiatric and neurologic diseases, etc.), stress condition and therapy with some kind of drugs. Special attention is paid to familial hypomagnesemias caused by genetic defects of magnesium transport systems. Overview of clinical and biochemical characteristics of twelve familial disorders is given and mechanisms of inherited magnesium homeostasis disorders as well as nine identified and mapped genes responsible for their development are considered. These genes code en subunits of ionic channels, co-transporters, modulators of transport systems and receptors controlling either intestinal absorption or renal reabsorption of magnesium. Recent advances in mechanisms of magnesium homeostasis will lead to insights in diagnostics, preventive medicine and treatment of magnesium-deficient conditions.
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Keywords: magnesium, homeostasis, genes controlling magnesium transport, inherited disorders, hypomagnesemia

Zinov'eva, V. N., Iezhitsa, I. N., Spasov, A. A. (2007). Magnesium homeostasis: mechanisms and inherited disorders. Biomeditsinskaya Khimiya, 53(6), 683-704.
This paper is also available as the English translation: 10.1134/S1990750808020030
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