The lecture deals with biomarkers, a newly introduced direction in biomedical research. The following terms, definitions, and characteristics were proposed to describe biomarkers: diagnostic tools, clinical endpoints and surrogate endpoints. Examples of predictors for cardiovascular diseases, acute-phase of inflammation and malignant tumors are represented. The special attention is given to the characteristic of the widespread biomarkers: homocysteine, transthyretin and C-reactive protein. Modern methods of identification, qualitative and quantitative determination of biomarkers are considered: mass spectrometric methods, immunoassay. The relationships between the latest achievements in the field of genomics, proteomics, bioinformatics and biomarker's investigations are established. The perspectives of biomarkers are discussed.