Incubation of proteins with glucose leads to their non-enzymatic glycation and formation of Amadori products known as an early glycation product. Oxidative cleavage of Amadori products is considered as a major route to advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) formation in vivo. Nonenzymatic glycation of proteins or Maillard reaction is increased in diabetes mellitus due to hyperglycemia and leads to several complications such as blindness, heart disease, nerve damage and kidney failure. Accumulation of the early and advanced glycation products in plasma and tissues of diabetic patients and causes production of autoantibodies against corresponding products. The advanced glycation products are also associated with other diseases like cancer. This review summarizes current knowledge of these stage specific glycated products as common and early diagnostic biomarkers for the associated diseases and the complications with the aim of a novel therapeutic target for the diseases.
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