The pathogenetic mechanisms of acute alcoholic intoxications are examined and is based the expediency of the search for the amethystic agents, which influence neurotransmitter systems. Promising should be considered the agents, which modulate GABA-systems (partial reverse agonists of benzodiazepine receptors), glutamate (antagonists of metabotropic receptors mGluR2/3), opioid neuropeptides (antagonists of opioid receptors), acetylcholine (reversible inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase and M-cholinoagonists), adenosine (selective antagonists of A -receptors). The amethystic effect manifest also the substances, which modify the second messengers systems (calcium, nitrergic and cascade of arachidonic acid). The most of the means examined possesses the moderate amethystic potential, and effectiveness is manifested predominantly during the preventive application.
Keywords: ethanol, the amethystic agents, neurotransmitter systems
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