Activators, receptors and signal transduction pathways of blood platelets

Shaturny V.I.1, Shakhidzhanov S.S.1 , Sveshnikova A.N.2, Panteleev M.A.3

1. Moscow State University
2. Moscow State University; National Research Center for Hematology
3. Moscow State University; National Research Center for Hematology; The Center for Theoretical Problems of Physicochemical Pharmacology RAS
Section: Review
DOI: 10.18097/PBMC20146002182      PubMed Id: 24837309
Year: 2014  Volume: 60  Issue: 2  Pages: 182-200
Platelet participation in hemostatic plug formation requires transition into an activated state (or, rather, variety of states) upon action of agonists like ADP, thromboxane A , collagen, thrombin, and others. The mechanisms of action for different agonists, their receptors and signaling pathways associated with them, as well as the mechanisms of platelet response inhibition are the subject of the present review. Collagen exposed upon vessel wall damage induced initial platelet attachment and start of thrombus formation, which involves numerous processes such as aggregation, activation of integrins, granule secretion and increase of intracellular Ca2+. Thrombin, ADP, thromboxane A , and ATP activated platelets that were not initially in contact with the wall and induce additional secretion of activating substances. Vascular endothelium and secretory organs also affect platelet activation, producing both positive (adrenaline) and negative (prostacyclin, nitric oxide) regulators, thereby determining the relation of activation and inhibition signals, which plays a significant role in the formation of platelet aggregate under normal and pathological conditions. The pathways of platelet signaling are still incompletely understood, and their exploration presents an important objective both for basic cell biology and for the development of new drugs, the methods of diagnostics and of treatment of hemostasis disorders.
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Keywords: Platelets, collagen, thrombin, ADP, thromboxane A2, PGI2, nitric oxide

Shaturny, V. I., Shakhidzhanov, S. S., Sveshnikova, A. N., Panteleev, M. A. (2014). Activators, receptors and signal transduction pathways of blood platelets. Biomeditsinskaya Khimiya, 60(2), 182-200.
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