Development of new effective method for cancer therapy is one of the most important trends in the modern medicine. Along with surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, induction of an immune response against the tumor cells is a promising approach for therapy of cancer, particularly metastatic, slowly dividing tumors and cancer stem cells. Induction of the antitumor T-cell immune response involves activation of antigen-presenting cells, which can efficiently present the cancer antigens and activate T-lymphocytes. The immune response may be activated by dendritic cells (DC) loaded with tumor antigens, such as tumor-specific proteins, tumor cell lysates, apoptotic or necrotic tumor cells, as well as nucleic acids encoding tumor antigens. Regardless of the selected source of the tumor antigen, preparation of mature DC is a principal step in the development of anticancer vaccines aimed at the induction of the cytotoxic T-cell immune response. Recently, various research groups have proposed several strategies for producing mature DC, differed by the set of agents used. It has been shown that the maturation strategy influences both their phenotype and the ability to induce the immune response. In this review we have analyzed the results of studies on the various strategies of preparation of mature DCs.
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