Adipogenic function and other biologic effects of insulin

Pankov Y.A.1

1. Endocrinology Research Centre, Moscow, Russia
Section: Review
DOI: 10.18097/PBMC20166201005      PubMed Id: 26973181
Year: 2016  Volume: 62  Issue: 1  Pages: 5-13
Studies on experimental animals with knockout of the insulin receptor gene Insr (in the whole body or in certain tissues) and/or related genes encoding proteins involved in realization of insulin signal transduction in target cells, have made an important contribution to the elucidation of insulin regulation of metabolism, particularly fat metabolism. Since the whole insulin secreted by b-cells, together with the products of gastrointestinal tract digestion of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates reach the liver, the latter is the first organ on which this hormone acts. The liver employs released amino acids for synthesis of proteins, including apoproteins for various lipoproteins. Glucose is used for synthesis of glycogen, fatty acids, and triglycerides, which enter all the organs in very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). The LIRKO mice with knockout of the Insr gene in the liver demonstrated inhibition of synthesis of macromolecular compounds from amino acids, glucose, and fatty acids. Low molecular weight substances demonstrated increased entry to circulation, and together with other disorders induced hyperglycemia. In LIRKO mice blood glucose levels and glucose tolerance demonstrated time-dependent normalization and at later stages the increase in glucose levels was replaced by hypoglycemia. These changes can be well explained if we take into consideration that one of the main functions of insulin consists in stimulation of energy accumulation by means of activation of triglyceride deposition in adipose tissue. FIRKO mice with selective knockout of adipose tissue Insr were characterized by decreased uptake of glucose in adipocytes, and its transformation into lipids. However, the level of body fat in animals remained normal, possibly due to preserved insulin receptor in the liver and insulin-induced activation of triglyceride production which maintained normal levels of body fat stores, the effective functioning of adipose tissue and secretion of leptin by adipocytes during inhibition of glucose transformation into triglyceride in adipose tissue. Knockout of the Insr gene in muscles blocked glucose uptake by myocytes, but it did not induce hyperglycemia, probably due to the increase in glucose uptake by other organs, which retained the insulin receptor, and induced some increase in fat resources in adipose tissue. Similar results were obtained in mice with knockout the glucose transporter 4 GLUT4 in muscle and/or adipose tissue. Insulin microinjections in the brain, in the cerebral ventricle 4 (ICV) and mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) did not affect the insulin levels in the general circulation, but effectively activated lipogenesis and inhibited lipolysis in adipose tissue. They induced obesity, similar to conventional obesity when the insulin levels increased. These results may serve as additional evidence for importance of the adipogenic insulin function in mechanisms of regulation of general metabolism.
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Keywords: hyperglycemia, fatty acids, triglycerides, obesity, diabetes, insulin receptor, gene, knockout of gene

Pankov, Y. A. (2016). Adipogenic function and other biologic effects of insulin. Biomeditsinskaya Khimiya, 62(1), 5-13.
This paper is also available as the English translation: 10.1134/S199075081601011X
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