1. Institute of Chemical Biology and Fundamental Medicine, SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia 2. Institute of Chemical Biology and Fundamental Medicine, SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia; Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk, Russia 3. Novosibirsk Branch of FSBI “The Acad. S.N. Fyodorov Eye Microsurgery Complex”, Novosibirsk, Russia
Exosomes represent a sort of extracellular vesicles, which transfer molecular signals in organism and possess markers of producing cells. Our study was aimed at search of exosomes in the tears of healthy humans, confirmation of their nature and examination of exosome morphological and molecular-biological characteristics. The tears (110-340 ml) were collected from 24 healthy donors (aged 46-60 years); individual probes were centrifuged at 20000 g for 15 min to pellet cell debris. The supernatants were examined in electron microscope using negative staining; and they were also used for isolation and purification of the exosomes by filtration (100 nm pore-size) and double ultracentrifugation (90 min at 100000 g, 4°C). The “pellets” were subjected to electron microscopy, immunolabeling. The RNA and DNA were isolated from the samples, and their sizes were evaluated by capillary electrophoresis, the concentration and localization of nucleic acids were determined. Sequencing of DNA was performed using MiSeq (“Illumina”, USA), data were analyzed using CLC GW 7.5 (“Qiagen”, USA). Sequences were mapped on human genome (hg19). Electron microscopy revealed in supernatants of the tears cell debris, spherical microparticles (20-40 nm), membrane vesicles and macromolecular aggregates. The “pellets” obtained after ultracentrifugation, contained microparticles (17%), spherical and cup-shaped EVs (40-100 nm, 83%), which were positive for CD63, CD9 and CD24 receptors (specific markers of exosomes). Our study showed presence of high amount of exosomes in human tears, and relation of the exosomes with RNA (size less than 200 nt) and DNA (size was 3-9 kb). Sequencing of the DNA showed that about 92% of the reads mapped to human genome.