Conformational polymorphysm of G-rich fragments of DNA Alu-repeats. II. the putative role of G-quadruplex structures in genomic rearrangements

   
Varizhuk A.M.1, Sekridova A.V.1, Tankevich M.V.1, Podgorsky V.S.1, Smirnov I.P.1, Pozmogova G.E.1

1. Federal Research and Clinical Center of Physical-Chemical Medicine, Moscow, Russia
Section: Experimental Study
DOI: 10.18097/PBMC20166206630      UDK: 577.21:577.29      PubMed Id: 28026805
Year: 2016  Volume: 62  Issue: 6  Pages: 630-637
Three evolutionary conserved sites of Alu repeats (PQS2, PQS3 and PQS4) were shown to form stable inter- and intramolecular G-quadruplexes (GQs) in vitro. Structures and topologies of these GQs were elucidated using spectral methods. Self-association of G-rich Alu fragments was studied. Dimeric GQ formation from two distal identical or different putative quadruplex sites – (PQS2)2, (PQS3)2 or PQS2-PQS3 – within one lengthy DNA strand was demonstrated by a FRET-based method. Oligomer PQS4 (folded into a parallel intramolecular GQ) was shown to form stacks of quadruplexes that are stabilized by stacking interactions of external G-tetrads (this was confirmed by DOSY NMR, AFM microscopy and differential CD spectroscopy). Comparative analysis of the properties of various GQs allowed us to put forward a hypothesis of two general mechanisms of intermolecular GQ-dependant genomic rearrangements: 1) formation of a dimeric GQs; 2) association of pre-folded intramolecular parallel GQs from different strands into GQ-stacks. Thus, the observed co-localization of G-rich motifs of Alu elements with double-strand break hotspots and rearrangement hotspots may be accounted for by the specific secondary structure of these motifs. At the same time, this is likely primarily due to high abundance of such G-rich Alu fragments in the genome.
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Varizhuk A.M., Sekridova A.V., Tankevich M.V., Podgorsky V.S., Smirnov I.P., Pozmogova G.E. (2016) Biomeditsinskaya khimiya, 62(6), 630-637.
This paper is also available as the English translation:10.1134/S1990750817020093
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