Biobanks are systematic and annotated collections of biological samples based on the system of standard operating procedures (SOP) and corresponding to the recommendations of the International Society for Biological and Environmental Repositories (ISBER). Standardization of conditions of obtaining, processing, storage of samples and providing to an end user are crucial in the activities of the biobank. The attributes of biobanks include common principles of labeling and annotation of biological samples using specialized software, an automated monitoring system of storage conditions, and registration of biosamples. Cryobanks are the biobanks maintained at the storage conditions from -196°C to -150°C that provide better cell viability and the highest preservation of biological molecules. Cryobanking is the most essential part of the infrastructure of population and personalized medicine, pharmaceuticals and biopharmacology, conservation of rare and endangered species, as well as biotechnology in general. Next Generation Biobanking, a concept especially designed for omics technologies, involves annotating biological samples on many biomarkers based on Next Generation Sequencing techniques, as well as collecting biological material from the same patient at different time points (for example, at different stages of the disease, before and after the operation, at different periods of therapy) with a detailed annotation of physiological, biochemical and clinical data. Epigenetic studies (DNA methylation, microRNA, etc.), as well as bioinformatic data analysis are of great importance in the activity of Next Generation Biobanking. Such biobanks should function based on the new ethical principles of the post-genomic era.
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