Searching for essential genes in cancer genomes

Pyatnitskiy M.A.1 , Karpov D.S.2, Moshkovskii S.A.3

1. Institute of Biomedical Chemistry, Moscow, Russia; Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia
2. Institute of Biomedical Chemistry, Moscow, Russia; Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
3. Institute of Biomedical Chemistry, Moscow, Russia; Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, Moscow, Russia
Section: Review
DOI: 10.18097/PBMC20186404303      PubMed Id: 30135277
Year: 2018  Volume: 64  Issue: 4  Pages: 303-314
The concept of essential genes, whose loss of functionality leads to cell death, is one of the fundamental concepts of genetics and is important for fundamental and applied research. This field is particularly promising in relation to oncology, since the search for genetic vulnerabilities of cancer cells allows us to identify new potential targets for antitumor therapy. The modern biotechnology capacities allow carrying out large-scale projects for sequencing somatic mutations in tumors, as well as directly interfering the genetic apparatus of cancer cells. They provided accumulation of a considerable body of knowledge about genetic variants and corresponding phenotypic manifestations in tumors. In the near future this knowledge will find application in clinical practice. This review describes the main experimental and computational approaches to the search for essential genes, concentrating on the application of these methods in the field of molecular oncology.
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Keywords: cancer genome, essential genes, CRISPR, RNAi, synthetic lethals

Pyatnitskiy, M. A., Karpov, D. S., Moshkovskii, S. A. (2018). Searching for essential genes in cancer genomes. Biomeditsinskaya Khimiya, 64(4), 303-314.
This paper is also available as the English translation: 10.1134/S1990750818040078
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