Molecular mechanisms of action and physiological effects of the proinsulin C-peptide (a systematic review)

Poteryaeva O.N.1 , Usynin I.F.1

1. Institute of Biochemistry, Federal Research Center of Fundamental and Translation Medicine, Novosibirsk, Russia
Section: Review
DOI: 10.18097/PBMC20206603196      PubMed Id: 32588825
Year: 2020  Volume: 66  Issue: 3  Pages: 196-207
The C-peptide is a fragment of proinsulin, the cleavage of which forms active insulin. In recent years, new information has appeared on the physiological effects of the C-peptide, indicating its positive effect on many organs and tissues, including the kidneys, nervous system, heart, vascular endothelium and blood microcirculation. Studies on experimental models of diabetes mellitus in animals, as well as clinical trials in patients with diabetes, have shown that the C-peptide has an important regulatory effect on the early stages of functional and structural disorders caused by this disease. The C-peptide exhibits its effects through binding to a specific receptor on the cell membrane and activation of downstream signaling pathways. Intracellular signaling involves G-proteins and Ca2+-dependent pathways, resulting in activation and increased expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, Na+/K+-ATPase and important transcription factors involved in apoptosis, anti-inflammatory and other intracellular defense mechanisms. This review gives an idea of the C-peptide as a bioactive endogenous peptide that has its own biological activity and therapeutic potential.
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Keywords: C-peptide, mechanism of action, diabetic nephropathy, neuropathy, apoptosis, review

Poteryaeva, O. N., Usynin, I. F. (2020). Molecular mechanisms of action and physiological effects of the proinsulin C-peptide (a systematic review). Biomeditsinskaya Khimiya, 66(3), 196-207.
This paper is also available as the English translation: 10.1134/S1990750821010066
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