The level of erythropoietin (EPO) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A) was investigated in blood serum and brain of Wistar rats by the enzyme immunoassay with specific rat antibodies. These growth factors are actively studied as biomarkers of ischemia or cytoprotection, as well as targets for agents initiating preconditioning (PreC). Pharmacological (amtizol administration), hypoxic (hypobaric hypoxia), and combined PreC (amtizol+hypobaric hypoxia) were used as neuroprotective approaches in this experimental work. In normoxia groups blood and brain tissue were collected 1 h (early period) or 48 h (delayed period) after the PreC. In addition we studied groups of animals with cerebral ischemia (induced by bilateral ligation of the common carotid arteries) 1 h and 48 h after the combined PreC: the levels of EPO and VEGF-A in the blood serum and the brain supernatant were determined in one day after the ligation. Experiments have shown that amtizol (3,5-diamino-1,2,4-thiadiazole) in normoxia increased the EPO level in the brain, and did not change EPO in blood serum and VEGF-A levels in both serum and the brain. A three-day (60 min exposure with 48 h intervals) hypobaric hypoxia (410 mm Hg) increased EPO and VEGF-A in the blood serum and brain tissues, but in most experimental groups differences did not reach the level of statistical significance versus intact control. The combined PreC was accompanied by a significant increase of EPO and VEGF-A in normoxia conditions both in early and delayed period of PreC. In cerebral ischemia the EPO level in the blood serum and brain tissues was higher than in intact control. The serum level of VEGF-A of the ischemia control group tended to increase while the brain level of VEGF-A remained basically unchanged versus the intact control group. In combined PreC before ischemia, the EPO level was lower in serum as compared with the ischemia control in the delayed PreC period, but did not differ significantly from the ischemia control in serum in early period and in brain tissues in both PreC periods. The VEGF-A level in the groups of combined PreC was significantly lower in serum as compared with the ischemia control in both the early and delayed PreC; in brain tissues it did not differ from the level of both the intact and ishemia control in early PreC period and was higher than in both control groups in the delayed PreC period.
Novikov V.E., Levchenkova O.S. (2020) Biomeditsinskaya khimiya, 66(4), 339-344.
Novikov V.E. et al. Erythropoietin and vascular endothelial growth factor level in normoxia and in cerebral ischemia under pharmacological and hypoxic preconditioning // Biomeditsinskaya khimiya. - 2020. - V. 66. -N 4. - P. 339-344.
Novikov V.E. et al., "Erythropoietin and vascular endothelial growth factor level in normoxia and in cerebral ischemia under pharmacological and hypoxic preconditioning." Biomeditsinskaya khimiya 66.4 (2020): 339-344.
Novikov, V. E., Levchenkova, O. S. (2020). Erythropoietin and vascular endothelial growth factor level in normoxia and in cerebral ischemia under pharmacological and hypoxic preconditioning. Biomeditsinskaya khimiya, 66(4), 339-344.