Calcium-activated chloride channels: structure, properties, role in physiological and pathological processes

Grigoriev V.V.1

1. Institute of Physiologically Active Compounds of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
Section: Review
DOI: 10.18097/PBMC20216701017      PubMed Id: 33645519
Year: 2021  Volume: 67  Issue: 1  Pages: 17-33
Ca2+-activated chloride channels (CaCC) are a class of intracellular calcium activated chloride channels that mediate numerous physiological functions. In 2008, the molecular structure of CaCC was determined. CaCC are formed by the protein known as anoctamine 1 (ANO1 or TMEM16A). CaCC mediates the secretion of Cl in secretory epithelia, such as the airways, salivary glands, intestines, renal tubules, and sweat glands. The presence of CaCC has also been recognized in the vascular muscles, smooth muscles of the respiratory tract, which control vascular tone and hypersensitivity of the respiratory tract. TMEM16A is activated in many cancers; it is believed that TMEM16A is involved in carcinogenesis. TMEM16A is also involved in cancer cells proliferation. The role of TMEM16A in the mechanisms of hypertension, asthma, cystic fibrosis, nociception, and dysfunction of the gastrointestinal tract has been determined. In addition to TMEM16A, its isoforms are involved in other physiological and pathophysiological processes. TMEM16B (or ANO2) is involved in the sense of smell, while ANO6 works like scramblase, and its mutation causes a rare bleeding disorder, known as Scott syndrome. ANO5 is associated with muscle and bone diseases. TMEM16A interacts with various cellular signaling pathways including: epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), calmodulin (CaM) kinases, transforming growth factor TGF-β. The review summarizes existing information on known natural and synthetic compounds that can block/modulate CaCC currents and their effect on some pathologies in which CaCC is involved.
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Keywords: Ca2+-activated chloride channels (CaCC), CaCC molecular structure, role of CaCC in physiological processes, role of CaCC in pathophysiological processes, cell signaling pathways, CaCC blockers/modulators

Grigoriev, V. V. (2021). Calcium-activated chloride channels: structure, properties, role in physiological and pathological processes. Biomeditsinskaya Khimiya, 67(1), 17-33.
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