Redox regulation of the NLRP3-mediated inflammation and pyroptosis

Rusetskaya N.Yu.1 , Loginova N.Yu.1, Pokrovskaya E.P.1, Chesovskikh Yu.S.1, Titova L.E.1

1. V.I. Razumovsky Saratov State Medical University, Saratov, Russia
Section: Review
DOI: 10.18097/PBMC20236906333      PubMed Id: 38153050
Year: 2023  Volume: 69  Issue: 6  Pages: 333-352
The review considers modern data on the mechanisms of activation and redox regulation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and gasdermins, as well as the role of selenium in these processes. Activation of the inflammasome and pyroptosis represent an evolutionarily conserved mechanism of the defense against pathogens, described for various types of cells and tissues (macrophages and monocytes, microglial cells and astrocytes, podocytes and parenchymal cells of the kidneys, periodontal tissues, osteoclasts and osteoblasts, as well as cells of the digestive and urogenital systems, etc.). Depending on the characteristics of redox regulation, the participants of NLRP3 inflammation and pyroptosis can be subdivided into 2 groups. Members of the first group block the mitochondrial electron transport chain, promote the formation of reactive oxygen species and the development of oxidative stress. This group includes granzymes, the mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein MAVS, and others. The second group includes thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP), erythroid-derived nuclear factor-2 (NRF2), Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1), ninjurin (Ninj1), scramblase (TMEM16), inflammasome regulatory protein kinase NLRP3 (NEK7), caspase-1, gasdermins GSDM B, D and others. They have redox-sensitive domains and/or cysteine residues subjected to redox regulation, glutathionylation/deglutathionylation or other types of regulation. Suppression of oxidative stress and redox regulation of participants in NLRP3 inflammation and pyroptosis depends on the activity of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and thioredoxin reductase (TRXR), containing a selenocysteine residue Sec in the active site. The expression of GPX and TRXR is regulated by NRF2 and depends on the concentration of selenium in the blood. Selenium deficiency causes ineffective translation of the Sec UGA codon, translation termination, and, consequently, synthesis of inactive selenoproteins, which can cause various types of programmed cell death: apoptosis of nerve cells and sperm, necroptosis of erythrocyte precursors, pyroptosis of infected myeloid cells, ferroptosis of T- and B-lymphocytes, kidney and pancreatic cells. In addition, suboptimal selenium concentrations in the blood (0.86 μM or 68 μg/l or less) have a significant impact on expression of more than two hundred and fifty genes as compared to the optimal selenium concentration (1.43 μM or 113 μg/l). Based on the above, we propose to consider blood selenium concentrations as an important parameter of redox homeostasis in the cell. Suboptimal blood selenium concentrations (or selenium deficiency states) should be used for assessment of the risk of developing inflammatory processes.
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Keywords: NLRP3 inflammasome, pyroptosis, redox regulation, thioredoxin, glutathione peroxidase, selenium

Rusetskaya, N. Yu., Loginova, N. Yu., Pokrovskaya, E. P., Chesovskikh, Yu. S., Titova, L. E. (2023). Redox regulation of the NLRP3-mediated inflammation and pyroptosis. Biomeditsinskaya Khimiya, 69(6), 333-352.
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