Distinct alterations in the rate of DNA synthesis (an increase in the rate of reparation and a decrease in the rate of replication in nuclei and mitochondria) were detected in liver and brain cells during the stress caused by surgical operation. Within 8-10 hrs after the operation the rate of DNA reparation was increased by 40-50% in nuclei of liver cells and by 31-35% in brain cell nuclei. Replication of nuclear DNA was decreased immediately after the operation--by 33% in liver cells and by 50% in brain cells. Within a day after the operation the rate of replication was restored up to the control level in liver cells, while it was still decreased by 30% in brain cells. The rate of mitochondrial DNA synthesis was slightly decreased within the first 12 hrs after the operation: by 12-14% in liver cells and by 18-20% in brain cells. The stress, and particularly postoperative stress, exhibited pronounced action on structure and various systems of DNA synthesis in cells of various tissues.