Yersinia pestis toxin (II fraction by E. Baker) inhibited aggregation of human platelets as well as elevation of Ca2+, induced by different agonists ADP, PAF, thrombin. Agonist-induced Ca2+ mobilization and Ca2+ influx were dose-dependently inhibited by the toxin. The effect was rapid, developing during the first minute of incubation with the toxin. In contrast to murine lethal protein the platelet inhibitory activity was thermostable. The action of thermostable factor on platelets was accompanied by elevation of cellular cGMP level. This factor of Y. pestis activated guanylate cyclase in human platelets.