The frequency of broncho-pulmonary complication after the surgery in the organs of upper part of the abdominal cavity does not decrease, although the technique of operation and methods of anaesthesia have been improved. Disorders in the functioning of the surfactant systems of the lungs are evident in patients with chronic gastric and duodenal ulcers and calculous cholecystitis. Surgical intervention and anaesthesiologic measures promote further disturbance of the functional activity of lung surfactants. The most pronounced disorders in the functioning of the surfactant systems of the lungs were observed in patients with the broncho-pulmonary complications, commonly on the third day after the operation. This condition, is one of the main pathogenic causes of the manifestation of broncho-pulmonary complications in the post-operative period.