A new method for detection of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) has been developed. It employees IAsys optical biosensor registration kinetics of HBsAg complexes with monoclonal antibodies. Detection of intermolecular interactions is accompanied by changes of the light refraction coefficient in the sensitive layer of the biosensor cuvette. The main advantage of this diagnostic technique consists in rapid registration of these interactions in real time, without any introduction of special labels into analysing molecules. The optical biosensor method was successfully employed for the detection of HBsAg in human blood serum. A comparative study of HBsAg detection by the optical biosensor and by immunoenzyme analysis demonstrated high specificity of HBsAg detection by this new method.